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Costs of Keeping a Bengal Cat | Animal Friends

Leslie A. Lyons, PhD

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Precise assurance of the genome of a brand is important to compassionate ache and for the development of analytic and screening tests that will advance ache treatment. The genome has been sequenced in humans, dogs, horses, cattle, cats, and several added species. Unfortunately, the genomic arrangement has alone been bent in a distinct cat. Cinnamon was an Abyssinian cat from the University of Missouri whose genome was sequenced in 2007. Because the genome was mapped in a distinct animal, and back beneath able-bodied methodologies were used, we abridgement the advice bare to advance tests that may advice in the identification of mutations and assay of disease.

A assay community-based activity has developed that will arrangement the genome of 99 or added bodies in adjustment to:

 Improve advantage of the cat genome

 Improve approaching assemblies of the cat genome

 Identify accustomed and aberrant abiogenetic variation

 Identify adroit mutations for specific bloom apropos

 Allow veterinary hospitals to accommodate alone genome sequencing for bodies for advanced bloom affliction (similar to the developing accustomed of affliction for humans)

The 99 Lives activity is actuality accommodating by the Lyons Artful Assay Class at the University of Missouri – Columbia to advice ensure that:

 Different bodies from altered breeds and locations are sequenced to aerate variation

 Similar technologies are acclimated to facilitate able abstracts management, alteration and alternative calling

 Data affection is aerial and consistent

 Data are publically accessible so that all associates of the assay association can account in a non-competitive and collaborative manner

 Researchers beneath accustomed with genomics assay and all-embracing bioinformatics will accept a ability for abstracts interpretation

 Follow standards and antecedence set by animal assay efforts

All abstracts from the activity will become publically available; however, participants accept admission to abstracts above-mentioned to publications.

99 Lives Researcher Accord Expectations

Participants in the activity are accustomed to accommodate high-quality arrangement and abysmal advantage of a different cat genome as allotment of the collaboration.

 Currently, Illumina HiSeq 100 bp commutual end sequencing reads are accurate by the project. Sequencing should be performed from two PCR-free libraries per cat of 350 bp and 550 bp for at atomic 15x coverage; 20x advantage for accustomed libraries. Contributors charge accommodate the sequencing capacity for anniversary genome and can accomplish sequencing at their own adopted facilities.

 The abstracts charge to be transferred to Maverix Biomics at a amount of $1,000 per cat.

 Maverix Biomics ( is based in San Mateo, CA. They will adjust the reads to the cat genome Felis_catus-6.2 arrangement ( and will use FreeBayes and/or Platypus to alarm SNPs. The cat reads and SNPs are overlaid assimilate a UCSC blazon browser for accessible examination of the data. Abstracts tables can be accessed that accommodate the articular SNPs in specific genes, regions, chromosomes, or the absolute genome. Maverix will accommodate a accumulative assay of the alternative calls for all bodies afterwards ample groups or specific milestones (20, 40, 60, 80 and 99) of new cat genomes accept been added to the database. Alternative calling to new cat genome assemblies will be conducted back the annotated assemblies are available.

 Once a genome dataset is transferred to Maverix and funds accepted, the contributor will be accustomed admission to the website for all the abstracts in the 99 Lives cat genome data.

 The Lyons’ Class may be able to angel some abstracts contributions.

Contributors are accustomed to accommodate the basal signalment of the bodies back possible, such as gender, breed, abode of origin, and covering color.

 One of the best cogent apropos of a aggregate ability is the abeyant for overlapping projects and assuming abstracts analyses on contributed genomes that would baffle or “scoop” the assay of addition contributor. Therefore, the specific phenotype(s) of absorption can be withheld from the cat identification information. However, we absolutely apprehend a awful accommodating and collaborative accomplishment for accord in the resource.

 Researchers can abreast acquaintance a subset of contributors to ask for phenotypes of absorption and for collaborative efforts.

 All bodies are welcome, including alien and agrarian felids.

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All contributors to the 99 Lives abstracts ability are accustomed to be co-authors on the aboriginal advertisement that is produced by anniversary contributor who uses the abstracts resource.

 All allotment sources charge to be provided for acknowledgements and included in anniversary advertisement and presentation application the 99 Lives ability data.

 All the cat genome abstracts can be downloaded by added board who are absorbed in added abstracts analyses of the cat genome provided they accomplish a addition to the resource.

 NIH-funded cat sequences will be deposited into NCBI Short Read Archive (SRA) as able-bodied as any added sequences volunteered by the researchers.

99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative Contributors

The 99 Lives activity has developed as accord amid the University of Missouri – Columbia, College of Veterinary Medicine and the University of California – Davis, but is connected to all advisers absorbed in artful bloom care. The Artful Assay Class of Leslie Lyons, PhD, at the University of Missouri is analogous the project. For details, amuse e-mail: or or alarm 01 573 884 2287.

The Lyons’ Artful Assay Class will accommodate alternate updates apropos the activity to the contributors and the assay community.

The contributors listed beneath accept agreed to a Memorandum of Compassionate (MOU) and accept submitted or are anticipating the addition of cat genome sequences to the 99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative. Several added board are absorbed in accidental and are adopting funds for sequencing.

The Winn Artful Foundation accurate the aboriginal accomplished genome sequences of nine bodies – the 9 Lives Project. Zoetis additionally fabricated a cogent donation to abutment the project. Via abutment from National Geographic, 12 accidental bred bodies accept been accomplished genome sequenced to advice analyze the accustomed cat abiogenetic aberration throughout its common range.

To date, 51 calm bodies and 4 alien cats, including a leash of Black-footed bodies with a retinal decline and a Pallas cat with polycystic branch disease, accept been submitted to the project. The publically accessible sequences for two lions, a tiger, an Amur leopard, and a Snow bobcat are actuality retrieved. The Felid taxonomic advising accumulation (TAG) is actuality approached to abutment the effort.

Via allotment from the Artful Bloom Center at Cornell (, allotment is accessible to accomplish all-embracing phenotype for health, such as MRIs, CTs, echocardiograms, ultrasound, radiographs, claret work, urinalysis, and added analytic techniques.

Table 1 presents the board who accept accommodating the acquiescence of samples, which is acknowledging the abiogenetic studies for abounding students, postdoctoral advisers and researchers.

To date, the Lyons’ Class has been acknowledged with the identification of the alternative causing Devon Rex “spasticity,” a archetypal for complete myasthenic syndrome, retinal degenerations in the Bengal, Persian and Black-footed cats, polycystic branch ache in the Pallas cat, and cutaneous asthenia in Burmese, a blazon of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Added diseases are beneath investigation, such as affiliated mediastinal lymphoma in Oriental shorthair cats, dwarfism, covering colors and fur types, and artful orofacial pain.

A crowdfunding armpit has been developed to advice accession abutment for the activity from the lay public. Amuse visit:

Public allotment has been aloft to arrangement Lil’ Bub and four clandestine donor cats. Brand groups are alive with the Winn Artful Foundation to abutment breeds with specific bloom apropos – such as Oriental and Siamese bodies with amyloidosis. Added board are initiating abundant projects on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and studies on baby agrarian felids. The Lyons class hopes to abutment studies on amyloidosis in Black-footed cats, alteration corpuscle blight in Fishing cats, and Vitamin A absence in lions.

Table 1. 99 Lives cat genome sequencing participants


Cat type

Project – Affection – Bloom affair – breed

Winn Artful Foundation – Lyons

3 bodies – 1 trio

Lymphoma – Oriental SH

Winn Artful Foundation – Lyons

9 bodies – 3 trios

9 Lives Initiative – Bengal, Persian, Oriental

Zoetis – Lyons

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7 cats

Fibrosarcoma, 3 dwarf, LaPerm, 2 Burmese

MU – CVM – Pearce

3 bodies – trio

Black-footed bodies (Felis nigripes) – PRA

UC Davis – Pedersen, VGL

3 cats

Birman, Devon Rex (NF)

Cornell – Todhunter

5 cats

Health issues – accidental breds

Univ. Bern – Leeb

1 cat

Swiss cat – ascendant white

Univ. Helsinki – Lohi

4 cats

Nordic bodies and breeds

Texas A&M – Murphy

1 cat

RPCI – 86 BAC, macho accidental bred

National Geographic

10 cats

Diverse common races

Iowa State – Rothschild/Ellinwood

2 cats

Random bred, antecedents founder

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Hudson Alpha – Barsh

2 cats

Cinnamon & undisclosed

Cincinnati Zoo – Swanson

1 cat

Pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul) – PKD

Private donor

2 cats

Burmese (FOP), Devon Rex (Myopathy)

Iowa State – Garrick

2 cats

British Shorthairs (Lymphadenopathy)

Total Bodies in the 99 Lives project

55 cats

51 calm and 4 agrarian felids

How Cat Veterinarians and Breeders Help?

All abiogenetic projects charge the cooperation and connected abetment of veterinarians and cat owners and breeders. Veterinarians are key to the analysis of bodies that accept bloom apropos with a cogent abiogenetic component. Proper and all-embracing diagnoses are analytical to the project. We acceptable any new ache or affection presentations to the study. We achievement anxious individuals will advice us to accession funds to arrangement bodies with absorbing bloom conditions. Breeders and cat owners can barrage their own crowdfunding efforts to accession funds, as accept the Siamese and Oriental breeders, to advice arrangement a cat of every breed!

Healthy bodies are aloof as important to the activity as bodies with afflictions as the advantageous bodies advice to analyze the normal, non-malicious DNA alternative in the genome.

Please advice us advance our interests and the website for the 99 Lives Cat Genome Sequencing Initiative!


Feline Assay Class at MU

Barbara Gandolfi, Erica Creighton, Nick Gustafson, Madison Bullock, Victoria Spreyer, Sara Shippey, Destiny Monroe, Jena Grahn and Ashley Bullock.

Devon Rex Project

Peter Dickinson, Beverly Sturges, D. Colette Williams, Robert A. Grah – UC Davis; C. Diane Shelton – UC San Diego; Maria Longeri – University of Milan; Peter Leegwater – Utrecht University.

The 99 Lives Participants and Maverix Biomics, Inc.

Max Rothschild, Matthew Ellinwood, Dorian Garrick, Niels Pedersen, Tosso Leeb, Hannes Lohi, William Swanson, Greg Barsh/Chris Kaelin, William Murphy, Rory Todhunter/Adam Boyko/Marta Castelhano/Colin Parrish.

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